War at Sea: U.S. Navy Plan Gold
The Weimar Republic’s
By Mike Bennighof, Ph.D.
The Weimar Republic,
that forward-looking liberal outgrowth of the collapsed German
Empire, was not a peace-loving entity. Well before the rise
of Adolf Hitler, the republic planted the seeds of military
The Versailles Treaty and its addenda destroyed German naval
power — with serious help from the Germans themselves.
On 21 November 1918, as part of the Armistice provisions,
the bulk of the German High Seas Fleet sailed to Scapa Flow
for internment. In May 1919, the Allies informed the German
delegates at Versailles that all the ships at Scapa Flow would
have to be turned over to the Allies, with most going to Britain.
Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter reacted by ordering the fleet
to scuttle itself, and on 17 June 1919 twelve battleships,
five battle cruisers, eight light cruisers and fifty destroyers
went to the bottom of the anchorage.
The gesture did little for Germany: The angry Allies made
the Germans hand over all their remaining modern warships,
and billed them for the scuttled fleet.
When the new Reichsmarine was founded on 31 March 1921, its
leaders foresaw Germany going to war with an alliance of France
and Poland. Britain and the United States, they believed,
would stay neutral in such a conflict. British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George’s behavior during the Russo-Polish
War of 1921 seemed to confirm this belief, as Britain remained
aloof while Poland was nearly overrun by the Red Army.
Vice-Admiral Hans Zenker, the Reichsmarine’s commander
from 1924 to 1928, prepared the navy’s building program
around this assumption. Germany would have to interrupt maritime
contact between France and Poland, prevent French landings
on the German coast, and conduct long-range commerce warfare
against French interests. The fleet the Nazis would eventually
inherit was built to Zenker’s specifications. When the
Reichstag believed Zenker had pressed too hard for new ships,
he gave way to Erich Raeder, who took a much slower approach
and would lead the navy into the Second World War.
Former Weimar Republic battleship Schlesien
the Panama Canal, 1938
The Reichsmarine’s first ships were a passel of leftover
veterans of the pre-dreadnought era: eight battleships and
eight light cruisers, plus 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats.
The navy was limited to 15,000 men, so even this small fleet
could not all be operational and two of the battleships were
disarmed and used as tenders while two others remained in
The navy was allowed to replace its cruisers when they became
20 years old, and this exception applied to all of them by
1922. The Reichsmarine laid down the light cruiser Emden in
late 1921 to a design very similar to the High Seas Fleet’s
final class of cruisers. Only six of the allowed eight cruisers
could be in service at any one time, so during the rest of
the 1920s the navy laid down four more modern light cruisers
as well. Runaway inflation and economic collapse delayed these
for a couple of years. A final cruiser to make the full six,
which became Nürnberg, was in turn delayed by
the outbreak of the Great Depression and not laid down until
1934. Though this came after the republic’s fall, she
was part of the Reichsmarine program rather than the Nazi
one that followed.
Germany was not a party to the Washington Naval Limitations
Treaty of 1922; she had her own limitations imposed by the
Treaty of Versailles. Warships could not exceed 10,000 tons
and could not be armed with guns larger than 11-inch (280mm).
This would, it was apparently supposed, yield only coast-defense
ships similar to those operated by the Swedish navy.
Deutschland’s crew mans the rails, 1935
Zenker famously manipulated these limits to produce the armored
cruiser Deutschland. She had thin protection but
very long range, as befitted her role as a commerce raider.
German propaganda claimed she could outrun what she could
not outfight, and outfight what she could not outrun. Though
not exactly true, it made a good tag line.
During the 1920s, many navies looked at building what the
naval journals of the time called a “Washington Treaty
Cruiser Killer.” This was a ship of high speed and light
armor, designed to destroy the “treaty cruisers”
of the time. The Washington treaties limited heavy cruisers
to 10,000 tons and an armament of 8-inch guns, but put no
limit on their length. Thus most navies built very long ships
of relatively high speed and thin armor.
Battleships, meanwhile, were limited to 35,000 tons and 16-inch
guns. Plus each signatory had an overall tonnage limit. Some
thinkers pointed out that two 17,500-ton ships with large-caliber
guns could be built on the allotted tonnage for one battleship.
The Washington Naval Treaty set 17,500 tons as the minimum
displacement for a ship carrying guns larger than 8 inches,
acknowledging this possibility. Italy actually authorized
a pair of such ships in 1928, but the Great Depression scuttled
Zenker wanted a pair of them for the Germany navy as well.
Germany had re-entered world diplomacy in 1925 with the Locarno
Pact, and appeared well on her way to re-joining the family
of nations. He seems to have thought an increase in the Versailles
tonnage limit could be negotiated, as well as an increase
in main gun caliber from 11 inches to the 12-inch size then
being advocated by the British for all nations.
Zenker's cruiser killer
Accordingly, he ordered a design prepared along those lines.
His cruiser killer would have good range and a thin skin,
and carry eight 12-inch guns in four double turrets. Secondary
guns would be nine 5.9-inch guns in the same turrets then
in production for K-type cruisers, and she’d have a
bank of three torpedo tubes on either side. Her armor would
be the same as Deutschland, then also in the design
stage, but she would have considerably greater speed (34 knots
against 28). Her range would be less than Deutschland,
as she carried turbines like the last Imperial battlecruiser
designs rather than diesels like Deutschland.
This ship would have little chance in battle against a true
battleship; her cruiser-scale armor would not stand up to
heavy guns. But with a speed of 34 knots, hopefully she wouldn’t
have to, and could run down and destroy enemy cruisers from
well outside their gunnery range.
International diplomacy did not in fact yield the agreements
for which Zenker hoped; German diplomats don’t appear
to have even asked for them. Of course, harsh reality should
not intrude into a game based on war plans. The Reichsmarine
planned to use this ship, so we’ve made her available
Since Zenker wanted this ship for commerce raiding against
the French, we’ve included two of them in U.S. Navy
Plan Gold along with scenarios forcing the French to
Click here to order Plan
Mike Bennighof is president of Avalanche Press and holds a doctorate in history from Emory University. A Fulbright Scholar and award-winning journalist, he has published over 100 books, games and articles on historical subjects.
He lives in Birmingham, Alabama with his wife, three children and his dog, Leopold.